Briefly, we’re not quite on the same page Andrew. My argument is that European, and world Christianity, did not get it wrong. Rather, the message of Hebrews is as applicable to non-Jews as to Jews, because the story it was bringing to completion was not simply Israel’s story alone. There was a wider story within which Israel’s story was contained: the Exodus within the Abraham story, the Abraham within the creation and fall story.
Far from excluding the historic, covenant people of God by bringing that story to a climax, Jesus includes them by fulfilling the story on their behalf, just as he does for us. The Exodus fulfilment at the passover meal and crucifixion emphasises the inclusion.
Jesus does bring about a long awaited redemption of creation in himself. It is done so through his own resurrection, but that resurrection rested on his own bearing of sin, representatively, and subsequently believing Israel’s and the Gentiles’ faith in him, and resurrection; a new creation beginning in each of them through faith and Spirit reception - not ex nihilo.