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Context would take into account proximity therefore Barnes did not assume it refers to the Lord Jesus.
I don’t know any place in the Old Testament or in the New Testament where there is confusion as to identifying the Creator and the creature. If the Lord Jesus was/is not God a more definitive distinction would have been made. In fact, many passages in the New Testament are purposefully vague when it comes to determining if it refers to the Father or the Lord Jesus — or even both. This accords with Trinitarianism and not Unitarianism.
Even lexicons such as the BDAG (3rd Edition) and Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament as well as the NIDNTTE and the TDNT sometimes refer the same passage to the Father and then elsewhere to the Lord Jesus.

 — Thanks for pointing out that the comment by Barnes is found in 1 John 5:20.

The great God
I wrote the following paragraph on on January 28th:
Notice also that when God is called “great” it is used in connection with offering Him supreme worship (Deuteronomy 10:17; cf. v. 20). The Lord Jesus receives supreme worship by believers as well which affirms they would view Him as the “great God”.
I would like to add that whenever the true God of the Bible is referred to as “great” it is always is in association with the worship due unto Him alone Deuteronomy 7:21 cf. v. 25; 10:17 cf. v. 20; 2 Samuel 7:22; Ezra 5:8; Nehemiah 1:5; 8:6; 9:32; Psalm 48:1; 76:1; 77:13; 86:10; 95:3; 104:1; Jeremiah 32:18; 44:26; Ezekiel 36:23; Daniel 2:45 cf. v. 18; 9:4). This is what separates Him as the Creator form every created thing. The fact that the Lord Jesus is properly given supreme worship due only unto God proves His Supreme Deity as the “great God”.

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