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It’s a timeline thing. I would say that Jesus and his followers, including Paul, conceived of the eschatological transformation primarily in terms of the reformation of Israel, consisting of both judgment and renewal or restoration. The unforeseen inclusion of Gentiles disrupted this narrative, to the extent that after AD 70 the prospect of the salvation of “all Israel” looked increasingy unlikely, and the church became a Gentile phenomenon. This problem can be mitigated, of course, if we speak not of national Israel but of the people of God or of the “descendants” of Abraham, but this is not really how the New Testament presents the matter.

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