What did Jesus fear in Gethsemane?

In the garden of Gethsemane, shortly before his arrest, Jesus becomes “greatly distressed and troubled” and says to his disciples, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death. Remain here and watch.” He moves some distance from them, falls to the ground, and prays “that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him”. Mark records his words: “Abba, Father, all things are possible for you. Remove this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will” (Mk. 14:32-36; cf. Matt. 26:36-39; Lk. 22:41-44).

It is sometimes argued—in fact, I heard the argument attributed to John Stott in a sermon this week—that this extreme distress and apparent reluctance to accept what lay ahead cannot have been motivated by the natural human fear of torture and a horribly painful death. It is pointed out that the scribe Eleazar, for example, welcomed “death with honor rather than life with pollution” when he spat out the sacrificed pig’s flesh that he had been forced to eat by the agents of Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. 6:18-19). The equanimity of many other martyrs in the face of death could be cited in addition.

If Eleazar could embrace martyrdom without any expression of fear, surely we would expect no less from Jesus? So we must assume that Jesus feared something far more terrifying than mere physical torture and a horribly painful death. He must have feared—and even then we may not want to call it “fear” as such—the spiritual or metaphysical pain of having to take upon himself the immeasurable burden of human sin, of having to drink the cup of God’s righteous wrath against all people.

Is this a valid argument? Not really.

First, the analogy with Eleazar is not entirely fair. Eleazar was already in the hands of the men who sought to compel him to act contrary to the Jewish Law when he welcomed death. This is not his Gethesemane moment. The proper point of comparison would be with Jesus at his trial, when he is given the opportunity to save himself by renouncing his messianic calling. Once in the hands of his enemies Jesus shows no fear of death. We also have to reckon with the likelihood that the synoptic Gospels give us a far more realistic and truthful account than 2 Maccabees.

Secondly, it is arguably a good thing that Jesus was afraid of the coming physical suffering and sought another way. He had earlier taught his disciples to pray that they would be delivered from such times of extreme trial (cf. Matt. 6:13), and in a moment he will rouse Peter from sleep and tell him to “Watch and pray that you may not enter into testing” (Mk. 14:38). He expected them to take up their own crosses and follow him, and Paul at times seems determined to emulate Jesus in his suffering and death (cf. Phil. 3:10-11; Col. 1:24). But there is absolutely nothing appealing about martyrdom. It is not to be pursued as an end in itself, for whatever reason, and only if it is unmistakably the will of God is it to be welcomed.

Thirdly, if the “cup” which Jesus will have to drink is not simply a figure for suffering but specifically the cup of God’s wrath, there is still no reason to universalize its scope and make it stand for God’s judgment on human sin in the abstract—at least, not according to a narrative-historical reading of the passage.

In the Old Testament the cup of God’s wrath is frequently a metaphor for judgment either against Israel or against the nations which oppose Israel. For example, Isaiah writes that the “cup of his wrath”, from which Jerusalem has been made to drink, will be taken from her (ie. she will be forgiven) and given instead to the people who tormented her (Is. 51:17, 22-23; cf. Jer. 25:15-29; Ezek. 23:32-34). This is the standard pattern: judgment against Israel through military action followed by judgment against the hostile nations; wrath against the Jew followed by wrath against the Greek.

There is no reason to think that Jesus would have used the metaphor differently, and since nothing in the synoptic Gospels suggests that he thought that he was about to die for the nations, we must assume that he means the cup of God’s wrath against Israel. His death on a Roman cross was to anticipate the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of Jews by the Romans, many of them by crucifixion, which was the wrath of God against Israel.

Commentators who think that the cup refers to a universal judgment against human sin will often cite Isaiah 53:6: “the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all”. On the cross Jesus must carry the burden of all human sin from the emergence of homo sapiens to the final destruction of the cosmos, or whenever; and it is this burden, supposedly, which causes him to cry out, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” But the argument cannot be made to work. Isaiah 53:6 refers not to the sins of all humanity but to the iniquity of Israel, as is clear, for example, from verse 8: he was “stricken for the transgression of my people”.

So there is no need to spiritualize the suffering that Jesus contemplates in the garden of Gethsemane: it is exactly the same sort of appalling physical suffering that the Jews would be subjected to 40 years later. And if there is no need to spiritualize the suffering, there is no need to deny that Jesus expressed a very human fear of torture and a horribly painful death.

Interesting analysis of the passage. I’m inclined to think that the cup of God’s wrath against Israel (and not “the world”) that the Messiah took up would be a good basis to adopt what some Reformed folk would call limited or definite atonement.

Yes, I think I would agree with the Calvinists on this one, though I would want to frame it historically and corporately rather than purely individualistically. Jesus died for the sake of the future of the people of God; individuals are called to participate in that once-and-for-all redeemed people.

If you limit yourself with Isaiah 53:6 as only reference the children of Israel, you could argue as you did. But the whole of scripture does not leave you in a place of truth with your conclusions. God’s cup of wrath that Jesus bore was for the sins of all mankind. Otherwise He could not send Paul to the gentiles.

Your other statement about not spiritualizing, is also not in anyway reasonable. Spiritualize? it is indeed a Spiritual experience for without it being spiritaul in nature or consequence the passage has no meaning of worth at all. God is Spirit and  they that worship, Him must worship Him in spirit and truth. Jn 4:24

The torture in Gethsemane is the torture of “HELL” seperation from GOD, Christs anguish to the point of sweating drops of blood is brought on by the realization of the “CUP of God’s Wrath” resulting in what is His worst fear seperation from the Father.

To use the arguement that Jesus had to experience all the fears of mankind is not an accurate statement concerning His humanity.

We often fear storms (severe weather) Jesus would never be able to face that fear for He controls the wind, the rain. He walks on water… The scripture does say He was tempted in almanners as we are tempted but without sin. SO, while some of your observations seem reasonable they are not at all accurate when taking into consideration the whole of scripture.

I would love to discourse more on this matter but must go for now….

Spiritualize? it is indeed a Spiritual experience for without it being spiritaul in nature or consequence the passage has no meaning of worth at all.

That’s not how I understand the word “spiritual”—at least, in this context, I only meant that we should not resort to dichotomising the physical and the spiritual. Human experience always has a “spiritual” dimension in some sense, but I think it is a mistake—as a matter of biblical interpretation—to attribute to Jesus a degree of suffering that is outside the range of normal human experience. There is no reason to think that this is what the Gospel writers were trying to convey.

The torture in Gethsemane is the torture of “HELL” seperation from GOD, Christs anguish to the point of sweating drops of blood is brought on by the realization of the “CUP of God’s Wrath” resulting in what is His worst fear seperation from the Father.

Again, this is theological interpretation, Glenn. It’s not what the texts say. There is no word for “hell” in the Bible and no statement to the effect that “Gehenna,” if that’s what you’re referring to, is eternal separation from God. We get that from our traditions.

Luke 22:43-44 is missing from some important manuscripts, and in any case, Luke only says that “his sweat became as if (hōsei) drops of blood falling upon the ground.” He does not say that Jesus literally sweated drops of blood. It’s a simile.

The meaning of the expression “cup of God’s wrath” in scripture is clear. It refers to God’s judgment, usually in the form of war and destruction, against nations, including against his own people.

Columbanus | Mon, 05/13/2013 - 21:43 | Permalink

Is not this expression of fear testament to the God -made -man thoery ?

Even though Jesus may have a knowledge of or “faith” in a non corporeal life he is nontheless subject to all the fears that other motals are. If he were not and merely “went through the motions” in the knowledge that everything would work out fine in the end then his trials would be meaningless. His humanity is essential to his teaching.

Great article. Thank you.

A verse which I believe agrees with your premise is Hebrews 4:15, “For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin.” (ESV)

“every” means every.

Keep posting!

Thank you for this explanation. I just heard it preached that Jesus was NEVER afraid. I thought for Him to be able to sympathize with me, he would have needed to have felt this human emotion at least once. I believe He did in the Garden Of Gethsemane Before his arrest. But without sinning.

Mar Javierto | Sat, 08/29/2020 - 20:12 | Permalink

What can be more terrifying for Jesus than the thought of being separated from God the Father when the sins of the people are put upon His shoulders to bear, and to suffer for,  to complete the propitiation? 

Glenn Gibson | Sun, 03/14/2021 - 21:35 | Permalink

Your final statement couldn’t be further from the truth….
“So there is no need to spiritualize the suffering that Jesus contemplates in the garden of Gethsemane: it is exactly the same sort of appalling physical suffering that the Jews would be subjected to 40 years later. And if there is no need to spiritualize the suffering, there is no need to deny that Jesus expressed a very human fear of torture and a horribly painful death.”
Hours later Christ now in the hands of His captors, speaks as one totally opposite to His plea in the garden. ” Father if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me” and stating that His soul is distressed to the point of death” to the one saying ” You have no power over me if it were not given to you from above”  What was the change ? In the Garden Jesus cries out to the Father three times and there is “SILENCE” Suddenly the words “I am in the Father and the Father in me, I and the Father are one” these words fall dead on the floor. Christ in the garden experience what we because of His sacrifice will never know as His children, ” Abandonement”.  Christ was experiencing a foretaste of “HELL“  — this cup. This was not fear it was unreconciliable torture of the “SOUL”. A torture we shall never know as His disciple, not ever….

The Lord’s prayer in Gethsemane about the cup passing him show a sense of dread. Wouldn’t you say? 

Wolfgang | Mon, 09/20/2021 - 02:06 | Permalink

Sometimes it might be good to think something from the opposite side. 

1.) He just shared the cup with his disciples. He gave himself, his body and blood.

2.) When he died on the cross everybody was astounded that he was already dead, and they did not need to brake his bones. And legend describes how his blood mixed with water was caught in the grail cup and flowed into the Earth.

3.) he sweat on Gethsemane blood with the sweat. It was not a soul-agony, but a real body-agony as the physician (Luke) reports.

This means, that he was already in the process of dying. Then the question would be — did he have fear of death, or did he have fear of not completing his mission to die on the cross if dying already beforehand…

He cannot have feared death, as he was conscious of going towards it. He tried to prepare his disciples every now and again for this.